Saturday, May 23, 2020

Plagiarism - An Ever-increasing Problem Essays - 1097 Words

Plagiarism - An Ever-increasing Problem Plagiarism has been a problem to academic institutions for centuries. Plagiarism basically means taking credit for somebody else’s work. The technical definition of plagiarism, as used by State University, is presenting work done (in whole or in part) by someone else as if it were ones own. Dishonest practices that go hand in hand with plagiarism include faking or falsification of data, cheating, or the uttering of false statements by a student in order to obtain unjustified concessions. In the past, plagiarism had been limited by the availability of information that is worth plagiarizing, either in area libraries, in newspapers and magazines, or even in academic files maintained by†¦show more content†¦But, along with these pro-plagiarists, there are also the anti-plagiarists. On the Internet, there are more web sites telling how to prevent plagiarism as there are promoting it. Sites include how to detect plagiarism, how to prevent plagiarism and what to do ab out plagiarism. There are numerous ways to plagiarize. These include copying somebody’s work and saying it is yours, faking an area where information was obtained, falsifying data, as well as cheating. These are only a few of the many ways that information can be plagiarized. There are many statistics that can show that there is an increase in the number and severity of plagiarism cases. Shockingly, almost 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once, 36% of undergraduates have admitted to plagiarizing written material, and, to emphasize the effect of the internet, 30% of a large sampling of Berkley students were caught plagiarizing directly from the Internet. This is surprising considering the consequences of plagiarism. Along with these college statistics, another interesting statistic from â€Å"Plagiarism.Org† is that 58.3% of high school students let someone else copy their work in 1969, and 97.5% did so in 1989. This is a huge increase. It is up to personal op inions to determine whether the Internet has caused this increase, and if it has, what is the percentage at today? College students should know better than to use somebody else’s work, and inShow MoreRelatedAcademic Plagiarism Types Factors And Plagiarism Detection Software1145 Words   |  5 PagesAcademic Plagiarism types factors and Plagiarism detection Software Introduction Cheating in school and colleges has always been a major concern for the teachers and educational professionals. Cheating or copying someone else’s work or idea is called plagiarism or â€Å"the theft of intellectual property has been around as long as human has produced work of art and research† [1]. Plagiarism is a serious crime because it is an academic dishonesty that is giving away false information or misguiding someoneRead MorePlagiarism And The Reasons College Students1618 Words   |  7 Pagesthat the substance, the bulk, the actual and valuable material of all human utterances— is plagiarism. Plagiarism damages reputations, both personal and universal; it promotes mediocrity, extinguishes creativity, limits educational experiences and exsanguinates learning. Metaphorically speaking, if a deadly virus is left untreated, an epidemic will begin and eventually will deplete a population. Plagiarism acts as a fastidious, pathogenic, virus infecting others wit h a mentality of mediocrity andRead MoreOvercoming Plagiarism Essay1247 Words   |  5 Pages Plagiarism is an ever-increasing problem throughout the world today, as the internet, along with technology such as Iphones and Tablets, has made accessing another person’s useful work as easy as typing a few words into a search bar. Pirating that work is then a simple matter of â€Å"cutting and pasting†. Similarly, advanced word processors have provided a stress-free way of integrating another’s writing into one’s own, or editing a plagiarized work so that it is more difficult to detect. HoweverRead MorePlagiarism, Cheating And Academic Standards1674 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The demonstration of showing the thoughts of others as your own without referencing known as plagiarism. This is cheating and degrades academic standards. One of the most important contributing factors that make plagiarism a worldwide problem is the simple access to web assets, where all the investigative papers and reports are effectively accessible. It has been evaluated that plagiarism has always been an area of interest for both administrators and teachers when they want efforts of studentsRead MoreDigital Access For Information : A World Changing Innovation1366 Words   |  6 Pagesthemselves in a way that was not possible before. An estimate of 2,405,518,376 people use the internet1 (which is approximately double the population of India at the time) 15 with 70% of them using it daily as of 2013.1 This number has only been increasing over time. I.M.S (instant messaging system), social media, amongst other forms of digital information allows people to communicate quickly and in real time. Society has come to the point where people use the internet so that they are, â€Å" longerRead MoreTeachnology Makes Life Easier820 Words   |  4 Pagesdream of in the last century, it is ever changing the way we think and acquire things whether it be our education, workplace and relations. But nothing comes without a tradeoff; we have become so intoxicated by the beauty of technology to the point that we have given up our independence, the substance of our humanity, for the comfort with machines. Technology has moved from just being technical to cultural, It has become increasing impossible not to notice the ever growing changes of our communicationRead MorePlagiarism in Online Education Essays1923 Words   |  8 Pagesand universities, the prevalence of plagiarism is on the rise. In a 2005 study conducted by the Center for Academic Integrity (, it was concluded that 40% of the 50,000 undergraduates asked admitted to having plagiarized from the internet. This is a very large jump over a span of six years, from only 10% in 1999 (Badke, 2007). It is becoming clear that educators, as well as students, need to become more familiar with what plagiarism is, what constitutes it, and how itRead MorePlagiarism And Its Effect On The Academic Assessment System3365 Words   |  14 PagesIntroduction In the age of advance technology and internet, plagiarism has become an increasingly complex issue. Petress (2003) argues that such phenomenon distorts the rewarding sense of hard work, destroys ethical value of honesty and undermines the academic assessment systems. Moreover, (Gullifer Tyson, 2010) believe that plagiarism denies students’ chances to develop essential academic skills and consequently causes difficulty to progress their degree. As a result, many western and AustralianRead MoreTechnology And The Internet And Personal Smartphone Devices1270 Words   |  6 PagesWith the ever increasing use of technological advancements such as the internet and personal smartphone devices, many people simply take their security for granted. However, the act of simply connecting to a web page like the Google search engine requires interacting with thousands of security checkpoints and distinct networks just to display their distinctive logo. Every modern organization must consider the risk of the internet, including but not limited to: banks, organizations, universities,Read MoreUsing Technology For Managers ( Adm 310-01a )1345 Words   |  6 PagesTechnology for Managers (ADM-310-01A) November 23, 2015 â€Æ' I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the Student Catalog relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism did take place in the writing of this paper, I understand the possible consequences of

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Comparison Essay Between 1984 and Bnw - 1285 Words

Dystopias: Why they can be both Pleasant and Disturbing Human interests play a major role in the agreeability of a society. Dystopias, in some cases, can actually be seen as utopias if one has been conditioned to believe it is, as seen in Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. However, if conditioning fails, or, is not exercised, even utopias can very easily become dystopias, such as in George Orwells 1984. Therefore, what one views as a dystopia, another could easily see as a utopia, and vice versa. Huxleys Brave New World and Orwells 1984 are in many ways, very similar. Both novels incorporate class of people who only exist on the outside edge of the society, which the authors use to compare between societies which they believe we†¦show more content†¦And not the childs mind only. The adults mind too Ââ€" all his life long. The mind that judges and desires and decides Ââ€" made up of these suggestions. But all these suggestion are our suggestions! (Page 23, BNW) By demolishing the ‘dirtiness of sex, the sacredness has also been eliminated and thus efficiently eliminating any thoughts which may lead to deeper emotions. On the other hand, in 1984 by George Orwell, the concept of sex is seen as a sinful act which should be practised only when they must, in order to do their duty to the party. (Page 139, 1984) Love is prominently forced out once it is discovered, such as in the case of Winston and Julia. Their forbidden love was crushed and any loyalties to one another eliminated. They were forced to betray one another and re-taught to love only Big Brother. Privacy is unheard of, as there are telescreens which watch everything, all the time, to prevent any possible fluctuations, with a fear of secrecy and paranoia. The society of Oceania is all-encompassing and there are no ‘outside places for the citizens to compare themselves to, such as the savage reserves and islands seen in Brave New World. All of the Outer Party members are dehumanized. Everything is controlled. Nobody is ever alone. Yet, everyone is always alone. The statements simply represent how everyone is always being watched, and th us, never alone, but only to the extent where it is through a machine. Everyone is also isolated from

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Apple’s Success, Service and Innovations Free Essays

CASE: â€Å"The Success of the iPod and iPhone raises the licensing question for Apple†¦. Again† 1. Use the Cyclic Innovation Model figure to illustrate the innovation process in this case and provide a brief description? Apple started in 1977 when it’s first personal computer was designed by Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak. We will write a custom essay sample on Apple’s Success, Service and Innovations or any similar topic only for you Order Now The thing that was different about the Apple Macintosh personal computer was that it used a mouse driven operating system, which was not being used by other computers at the time. Microsoft were using a Microsoft Disc Operating System, which they licensed to all other PC manufacturers, Apple refused to do this which limited it to only people who bought Apple computers, this led to Apple’s shares falling significantly. Although Apple had an arguably better operating system they were losing in the market, because Microsoft licensed other manufacturers to use their operating system it became the common household system. This stubbornness although at the time seen to be foolish at the time, has helped with their success today (Trott, P 2012). Apple’s technological research over time (and the return of Steven Jobs) led to the creation of the iPod. In 2001 the iPod was launched, from 2003 the sales of the iPod heavily increased, generating massive profits for Apple, and giving the brand more exposure. To help Apple deal with the market competitors they kept improving and modifying the iPod, whilst still being able to lower its price. They did this by making modified versions such as the iPod Shuffle, and upgrading other models. Apple has continued to upgrade and invent new products to keep its customers and attract new ones. This has been done through the iMac, iPod, iPad and iPhone, adding new technological features, such as giving phones other multipurpose uses such as an iPod substitute as well as the invention of the ‘apps store’. Their technological developments to make these products do all sorts of amazing new things has given them a huge upper hand in the market (Trott, P 2012). Apple have made a positive shift in the market transition since they first started, from the debut of the Apple Macintosh in 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club which was barely taken seriously. To now where the release of the iPad which was criticized for being too big for an iPhone but too small for a laptop which has made considerable profit, is astounding. The brand image they have built is superior to any other technological brand in the market, in my opinion. 2. With Sales of iPod falling and Apple facing fierce competition from all quarters such as Sony, Dell, Samsung and other electronics firms as well as mobile phone makers who are incorporating MP3 players into their devices, can the iPod survive? The iPod has become the standardized form of MP3 players in the market, taking up 50% of market share in the MP3 market (Trott, P 2012). Although Apple has recorded a fall in iPod sales in recent years, they have been substituted for other apple products which have had a huge increase in sales such as the iPhone which is commonly used as an MP3 player. Other companies have tried making and matching and bettering the iPod with their own MP3 players but have been unsuccessful in knocking off the number 1 MP3 player of the decade. Apples brand is so strong in that market with so many different versions of the iPod, making them an affordable and safe choice when choosing an MP3 player. Still competitors will keep trying to better the iPod through MP3 technology in their own devices, the iPod will have to keep on improving if it wants to keep the upper hand in the market. To keep their spot Apple with have to keep improving the quality and technology of their iPod and keep its sleek original design, while still keeping the prices competitive with other brands. Even newer technology will need to be presented by Apple if it wants to keep MP3 market shares high, futuristic technology will have to be designed possibly holograms technology and increasing the uses that the iPod MP3 already has. Although I believe it is inevitable that iPods and MP3 players will soon be a very small market in today’s society with so many other devices having the same technology plus more, that is still a fair while away and more profit is definitely yet to be made through the iPod. New fashionable unique covers can make the iPods more attractive to consumers, as well as all the accessories; such as jogging/fitness straps to hold them while the consumer participates in physical activity. Also upgrading the headphone design so it sits in more comfortably. I think some kind of hologram technology will become evident in the future of the mobile phone or iPod technology. Also a backup storage where the whole device is always backed up to a computer device so absolutely nothing is lost if a phone breaks, or is lost. 3. How can Apple influence future technology developments or establish strategic alliances to ensure it is a dominant force in the hand-held device that will incorporate both the cellphone and the MP3 player? Apple must continue to maintain a positive and trusting strategic alliance with other companies in the future to ensure that their plans for future technologies aren’t leaked, or copied. If they are able to create that kind of a strategic alliance, and with a major technical company (e. g. HP) they could create some mind blowing new technology in the future. The possibilities if Apple were able to team up with a technology giant could mean massive $$ for both companies, and new technology which could come out of that type of alliance could set the standards for the next generation of the industry. With the ability Apple have to keep upgrading and improving their products this would give them a huge advantage over their competitors. However for now, Apple must make sure they maintain their brand image, as the producers of the newest and best technology. The only way they will be able to do this is by keep upgrading their current products, while they wait for new technology’s to be developed. They must also keep designing new and upgraded products, so when new generation technology’s become available, people look to buy their product first. This will help keep them as a dominant force in the future hand-held device of MP3, cellphone industry. References: Trott, paul. 2012 innovation management and new product development 5th edition. prentice hall/pearson How to cite Apple’s Success, Service and Innovations, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Pornography And Sex Crimes Essay Example For Students

Pornography And Sex Crimes Essay What is going on? were the only words I could pull from my shaking mouth. I will never forget the pain in my gut when I opened the door to find mynine-year-old sister watching a porno. I found it in Billys room andwanted to see what it was, Im sorry Jes. As I watched tears role down herface, a feeling of rage exploded within me. It was then that I realized thatpornography is not only being watched by adults, but being explored by our youthas well. What has our society come to, and what role does pornography play init? Its definitely not the positive outlet. I believe pornography can bedangerous because it dehumanizes family values, and leads to vicious acts ofviolence. 1. Family Values The stone first strikes at the very heart of familyvalues. It presents behavior that is immoral and sinful as acceptable. Pornography makes premarital sex, adultery, and a variety of other perversionsnot only permissible, but attractive. It encourages both male and femalehomosexuality, which are lifestyles that are not acceptable to many people. Itis not only those who come into direct contact with pornography that areaffected. The ripples spread, and with them the effects of smut on the communityas a whole. The Pontifical Councils report cited strong evidence that obscenematerials corrode human relationships, exploit individuals (especially womenand young people), undermine marriage and family life, foster anti-socialbehavior and weaken the moral fiber of society itself. Even nonviolentpornography is harmful according to a study by Dr. Dolf Zillman and Dr. JenningsBryant. After weeks of exposure to soft-core material, those who participated inthe experiment said they felt less satisfied with their partners sexualperformance, affection and physical appearance. After assessing the resultsof Zillman and B ryants study, sex addiction expert Dr. Cline concluded thatthis world suggest that the consumption of pornography erodes material valuesand the institution of marriage itself. This may be borne out by escalatingdivorce rates over the years in which pornography has flourished. 2. Young SexOffenders Not only does pornography attack family values, but it also leads manyto violence. Dr. Victor Cline conducted a pilot study for the U.S. Department ofJustice on the effects of Dial-A-Porn. He found that in every case, withoutexception, the children became hooked on this sex by phone and kept going backfor more. He thought the conclusion was inescapable. He believed Dial-A-Pornhad an addiction effect. Police statistics indicate that an increasingnumber of young people addicted to hard-core pornography are acting out whatthey have learned. Recent cases include sexual assault on a two-year-old girl bytwo Detroit boys (one was only eleven years old), the rape of a mentallyretarded girl by five New Jersey teenagers using a broomstick and a miniaturebaseball bat, and a gang of boys age twelve to seventeen raping and brutallybeating a women jogger in New York Citys Central Park. Many of these youngabusers have themselves been abused. Sometimes occurring when they are veryyoung, only three to four years old. Sometimes the ones who abused them arefamily members, a babysitter, or a friend of the family. Pornography plays apart in the abuse, either in terms of arousing the molester, attracting thechilds interest, or showing the child what to do. Former Los Angeles PoliceChief Daryl F. Gates of the Sexually Exploited Child Unit points out that thefrequent recovery of pornography in sexually exploited child cases is notconsidered to be happenstance. It is a part of the pattern. 3. PornographyDoes Not Incite Violent Sex Crime I have realized that there are people outthere that believe pornography is not bad, and that it doesnt lead to sexcrimes. However what about the convicted mu rderer that was seriously involved inpornography, Ted Bundy. Bundy, who raped and murdered an unknown number ofvictims, was executed in 1989 for killing a twelve-year-old girl. Shortly beforehis death, Bundy discussed his addiction to pornography with a psychologist. .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 , .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .postImageUrl , .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 , .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:hover , .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:visited , .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:active { border:0!important; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:active , .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9 .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u299ad46f2be79fe8ade1fb1eef2489c9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: 2Nd Amendment EssayI would keep looking for more potent, more explicit, more graphic kinds ofmaterials, Bundy said, adding finally you reach the jumping-off pointwhere you begin to wonder if maybe actually doing it will give you that which isbeyond reading books about it or looking at it. Studies by the Federal Bureauof Investigations behavior science unit reveal that about 80 percent ofkillers who commit sexual crimes have a taste for violent pornography. Aworkshop conducted by the U.S. Surgeon Generals Office has concluded thatexposure to violent pornography increases punitive behavior towards women.And the United States Attorney Generals Commission has found thatnonvio lent pornography whets the appetite for violent forms. With all ofthe evidence shown, how could pornography be good for our society? Seeing myyoung and venerable sister exposed to pornography has led me to believe that sheis not the only one being attacked. There are many others out there that arebeing exposed as I speak, and maybe tomorrow, just as Ted Bundy, they willdecide that reading and watching it is just not enough. Our nation will stand orfall depending on its moral values. Pornography, like the larva of a clothesmoth, is eating the fabric of our nation (unseen and generally untouched). However we have the power to bring the dehumanizing pornography into the lightwhere it can be destroyed.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Matthew Sinrod Essays - U.S. Route 66, Monterey, California

Matthew Sinrod Dr. Doyle Eng 102 5/5/98 Themes in The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California February 27th 1902. He was the third of four children and the only son of John Ernst Steinbeck II, manager of a flour mill, and Olive Hamilton Steinbeck, a former teacher. Steinbeck said of his youth, (We were poor people with a hell of a lot of land which made us think we were rich people, even when we couldn't buy food and were patched.) Steinbeck used the area where he grew up as the setting for many of his stories. He attended Stanford University for a few years. He had to work to pay for his education, and sometimes took off one quarter to pay for the next. (He worked as a clerk in several stores, was a hand in a ranch, and even worked at the Spreckels Sugar Company where he gained knowledge of labor problems he would later write about in The Grapes of Wrath.) Other books by Steinbeck include Of Mice and Men, Tortilla Flat, and Cannery Row. He died in New York City on December 20th 1968. Sinrod 2 A constant theme in our story is the suffering of humans. As F.W. Watt says, (The primary impact of The Grapes of not to make us act, but to make us understand and share a human experience of suffering and resistance.) Steinbeck shows us that his characters, as well as all people must endure suffering as human beings. Humans suffer due to many factors. Religious suffering is one factor which is self imposed. (When we first see Casy he is explaining to Tom Joad how he left preaching, not merely because of the lusts that plagued him, but because religious faith as he knew it seemed to set up codes of behavior which denied human nature its proper and full expression) Religious suffering is perhaps epitomized in Jesus Christ, and Joseph Fontenrose believes the tragic character of Casey is believed to be the symbolic representation of Jesus Christ himself. (Jim Casy's initials are JC, and he retired to the wilderness to find spiritual truth and came forth to teach a new doctrine of love and good works...Casy sacrificed himself for others when he surrendered himself as the man who had struck a deputy Sinrod 3 at Hooverville...Tom told his mother, I'm talking like Casy, after saying that he would be present everywhere, though unseen...) However the character of Jim Casy goes beyond Christ. While pondering sin and virtue, Casy comes to the enlightening conclusion that people cannot be judged good or bad. (Maybe it's just the way folks is...There ain't no sin and there ain't no virtue. There's just stuff people do. It's all part of the same thing. And some things folks do is nice, and some ain't nice, but that's as far as any man got a right to say.) Viewing the morality of individuals as dynamic, as opposed to static, provides tremendous freedom for characters such as Tom Jode. He is capable of many different actions throughout the story, including intimidation, guile, support, love, and even murder. Steinbeck wants to show that even a murderer still loves his mother. The mother after all, is holding his family together. (In all the families in crisis, the children look to the women for answers to their immediate survival: What are we gonna do, Ma? Where are we going to go?) At one point in the story, Tom Jode considers leaving home rather than possibly Sinrod 4 endangering his family, however his mother reminds him that without his family, he has nothing. (There is no question that in this model the mother makes the most important contributions to the family stability.) Placing such importance on family values is not without reasons. Family is all the Jodes have to hold onto in the uncaring world in which they live. It is the only way they survive in the system which thrives on the exploitation of the poor. (The real power of Grapes of Wrath is the savage anger at the impersonal process that uproots men from the land and rapes it...) The best way for the Jodes to gain strength was through groups. Each time a fairly stable group or community was achieved, those in power attempted to destroy the group, effectively

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Complete Guide to ACT Grammar Rules

The Complete Guide to ACT Grammar Rules SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Even though the English language is complex, ACT English tests a specific set of grammar rules. Furthermore, it tests these rules the same way, over and over again. In this complete guide, we've compiled the comprehensive list of ACT English grammar rules you need to know to ace the ACT English section. If you master all these rules and practice them with realistic ACT questions, you'll have a huge advantage on the English section.Unlike other guides, we give you lots of examples to help you understand how grammar rules will show up on the ACT. After all, you need to master the ACT format to do well on the ACT. Quick Overview The English rules tested on the ACT can be grouped into two categories: Usage and Rhetoric. Usage skills are what are typically called "grammar rules," such as punctuation, subject/verb agreement, and verb tenses. Rhetorical skills have to do with style, organization, and writing logic. You'll need to know how to organize sentences in a paragraph, connect two ideas together logically, and sequence paragraphs together. We'll start first with Usage skills, then move onto Rhetorical skills. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points or more? We've put our best advice into a single guide. These are the 5 strategies you MUST be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download this free ACT guide now: USAGE SKILLS Usage questions cover primarily grammar and punctuation - what we generally think of as correct English. Punctuation The ACT only tests very specific uses of certain kinds of punctuation. Those rules, and only those rules, are detailed below. Commas Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. We had coffee, cheese, crackers, and grapes. Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the adjectives are interchangeable. It was a vibrant, massive painting. When starting a sentence with a dependent clause, use a comma after it. When Jim studied in the library for his chemistry quiz, it was very quiet. Use commas to set off nonessential parts of the sentence. The woman, knowing it was late, hurried home. Apostrophes Apostrophes are used two ways on the ACT: to show possession and to create contractions. Many of the apostrophes issues are tested using the "Word Choice" skill further below. To form possessives of nouns: Laura's hat The kids' toys The tree's leaves Note that the singular possessive Laura's has the apostrophe before the s, while the plural possessive kids' has the apostrophe after the s. To create contractions (show the omission of letters): There's a clown. You'd love it. Who's there? Colons Use a colon after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation, appositive, or other idea directly related to the independent clause. The vote was unanimous: the older candidate had won. Semicolons Use a semicolon to join 2 independent clauses when the second clause restates the first or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis. I'm not sure how to get there; let's get directions. Use a semicolon to join 2 independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, etc.) or a transition (in fact, for example, etc.). The basement is scary; thus, I do not go down there alone. Dashes Dashes are used to set off or emphasize the content enclosed within dashes or the content that follows a dash. Dashes place more emphasis on this content than parentheses. Upon discovering the errors- all 124 of them- the publisher immediately recalled the books. End Punctuation Use a period at the end of a sentence that makes a statement. He will try again. Use a question mark after direct questions. Where are we? Use (rarely) an exclamation point at the end of a sentence to express strong emotion. Stop it! Pronouns A pronoun is a noun that can stand in for another noun. For example, the pronoun "she" can stand in for "the woman" or "Queen Elizabeth." But, unlike nouns, pronouns change their form if they're used in different ways. These are the ways that pronouns are tested on the ACT. Subject vs. Object Pronouns Nouns, in relation to verbs, can be subjects or objects. Subjects "do" verbs and objects have verbs "done" to them: a dog (the subject noun) chases (the verb) its tail (the object noun). Regular nouns like dog or tail do not change depending on whether they are subjects or objects, but most pronouns do. For example, in the phrase "she likes him," the woman is the subject, so the pronoun is she; in the phrase "he likes her," the woman is the object, so the pronoun is her. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns I you he she it we they me you him her it us them Examples Error: Me and my parents ate dinner. Corrected: My parents and I ate dinner. Error: The tourists asked my friends and I for directions. Corrected: The tourists asked my friends and me for directions. Error: The Girl Scouts sold cookies to my sister and I. Corrected: The Girl Scouts sold cookies to my sister and me. Note above that all of the examples pair the faulty pronoun with another noun. This is almost always how the harder ACT pronoun questions test this skill. That vs. Who This concept is simple: who is the pronoun for a person or people, and that is the pronoun for everything else. Examples Error: The coach is the person that is in charge of the team's schedule. Corrected: The coach is the person who is in charge of the team's schedule. Error: The elephant is the animal who asks for the most treats. Corrected: The elephant is the animal that asks for the most treats. Error: The corporation is who owns this land. Corrected: The corporation is what owns this land. Pronoun Agreement When we use pronouns more than once in a sentence, we have to use the same perspective throughout. Examples Error: If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, you have to know the rules of the game. Corrected: If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, she has to know the rules of the game. Error: Everyone should make their own decision. Corrected: Everyone should make his own decision. Error: Every student must study hard if they want good grades. Corrected: Every student must study hard if she wants good grades. Note: In the second example, that the error is the commonly-used "their" to mean a singular noun (everyone); while this is used in common, everyday speech, using "their" as a possessive pronoun for a single person is not formally accepted as grammatically correct on the ACT. These singular nouns that seem plural (such as nobody, anyone, and each person), as well as "their" instead of the singular "he" or "his," are often tested in the hardest pronoun questions. Ambiguous Reference Wherever there is a pronoun, it should be obvious what the pronoun is "standing in" for. Examples Error: Ethel told Lucy that her pie was wonderful. Corrected: Ethel told Lucy that Lucy's pie was wonderful. Error: The files arranged by the temporary workers were out of order, so we sent them back to the main office. Corrected: The files arranged by the temporary workers were out of order, so we sent the files back to the main office. Error: Once Nora and Elise go to live with their husbands, they have to convert to their ways of living. Corrected: Once Nora and Elise go to live with their husbands, the husbands have to convert to their wives' ways of living. Verb Forms: Tense and Agreement There are two main issues with verbs tested on the ACT: verb tense and subject-verb agreement. The subject is the noun that "does" the verb (below, the subject of the sentences is they.) Verb Tense There are six basic verb tenses, two for each time period: Simple Present: They sing. Present Perfect: They have sung. Simple Past: They sang. Past Perfect: They had sung. Future: They will sing. Future Perfect: They will have sung. All of these tenses are created out of three forms of "to sing": sing (present), sang (past), and sung (past participle). As you can see, some of the correct verb forms are created by adding forms of the words "have" and "do." The idea is to keep verbs in a single sentence within the same time period. Examples Error: The boy insisted that he has paid for the candy bars. Corrected: The boy insisted (past) that he had paid (past perfect) for the candy bars. Error: The doctor suggested bed rest for the patient, who suffers from a bad cold. Corrected: The doctor suggested (past) bed rest for the patient, who suffered (past) from a bad cold. Error: I told him that he can drop by any time and I will be happy to help him. Corrected: I told (past) him that he could (past) drop by any time and I would (past) be happy to help him. Subject/Verb Agreement Nouns and verbs are both parts of speech with number: they are written differently if they refer to just one thing or multiple things. Subject/verb agreement just means that the noun and the verb have the same number (singular or plural). For example, one dog runs fast, but two dogs run fast. Examples Matching subjects and verbs are underlined, while verbs that don't match subjects are bold. Error: The climate in those cities are uncomfortably humid. Corrected: The climate (singular) in those cities is (singular) uncomfortably humid Error: There was a rat and three buckets of whitewash in the corner of the basement. Corrected: There were (plural) a rat and three buckets of whitewash (plural) in the corner of the basement. Error: Ms. Russell is trying to read a book outside but a swarm of flies keep distracting her. Corrected: Ms. Russell is trying to read a book outside but a swarm (singular) of flies keeps (singular) distracting her. Comparisons These are pretty simple. Comparisons between two things are formed by the construction "x is more/less [adjective]/[adjective]-er than y." For example, Bill is more friendly than Louis. Comparisons between three or more things, however, are formed by the construction "x is the most [adjective]/[adjective]-est of the [things]." For example, Lucy was the most adept student in the class or The cheetah is the fastest land animal. The ACT tests this skill by mismatching the types of comparison: Examples Error: Between butterflies and spiders, humans admire butterflies the most. Corrected: Between butterflies and spiders, humans admire butterflies more. Error: Cheetahs are the faster of all land mammals. Corrected: Cheetahs are the fastest of all land mammals. Error: Nationalists think theirs is the better nation of all. Corrected: Nationalists think theirs is the best nation of all. Wondering how best to practice these grammar rules? Check out our #1 rated online ACT prep program. Unlike most prep programs, PrepScholar is special because we give you focused practice on individual skills, customized to your strengths and weaknesses. Are you weak in punctuation? We'll give you dozens of practice questions to master how to use commas. Confused about subject/verb agreement? PrepScholar will drill you on this grammar rule until you master it. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial: Word Choice These questions are about commonly confused words. Just memorize which is which. Its vs. It’s It's is short for it is or it has. It's too late. Its shows possession, like his and her. These are its footprints. Their vs. There vs. They’re There refers to a place. There is a terrarium in the first building; it is over there. They're is a contraction of they are. They're not in this building. Their is the possessive pronoun. Their house is on the next street. To vs. Too vs. Two Two is a number. There were two books on the table. Too means "more than enough" and "also." After we got our dinner for free, they gave us too much ice cream for dessert, too!" To indicates direction and action. We're going to the park to play basketball. Then vs. Than Then is mainly an adverb, often used to situate actions in time. That was then; this is now. Than is a conjunction used mainly in making comparisons. Shaq is taller than Kobe. "Might Have" vs. "Might Of" "Might have" is correct. "Might of" is not. She might have gotten lost. Idioms Idioms are expressions that mean something different than the actual words they use, such as "rain cats and dogs" or "kick the bucket." But in English we also have short phrases made of words that always go together, and these are also tested on the ACT. Examples Error: Maria stumbled in her old rocking horse in the garage. Corrected: Maria stumbled upon her old rocking horse in the garage. Error: Loud guard dogs keep burglars in bay. Corrected: Loud guard dogs keep burglars at bay. Error: Arturo and I happened for meet at the library. Corrected: Arturo and I happened to meet at the library. Verbal Phrases The ACT particularly loves one type of idiom: verbal phrases, which are verb + preposition pairs. They always want to know if you know which is the correct preposition, as in the incorrect sentences below. Examples Error: The show was followed on an encore. Corrected: The show was followed by an encore. Error: She is responsible of returning her library books. Corrected: She is responsible for returning her library books. Error: One should refrain for texting while driving. Corrected: One should refrain from texting while driving. Bonus: Looking for the very best guides to every ACT section? Check out our top guides for every single section of the ACT. Choose the score level you're aiming for: 36 Score Guides: ACT English | ACT Math | ACT Reading | ACT Science | ACT Essay Choose these guides if you're scoring a 26 or above on a section, and you want to get the highest ACT score possible. 24 Score Guides: ACT English | ACT Math | ACT Reading | ACT Science | ACT Science Choose these guides if you're scoring below a 24 on a section, and you want to boost your score to at least a 24 level. These are the very best guides available on boosting your ACT score, section by section. They're written by Harvard grads and perfect ACT scorers. Don't disappoint yourself - read these guides and improve your score today. Sentence Fragments Run-on Sentences Sentences are made up of groups of words that are called clauses. There are two types of clauses: independent (can be a complete sentence) and dependent (must be attached to an independent clause in order to be a complete sentence). An independent clause has a subject-verb pair and does not start with a word or phrase that makes the clause dependent, such as "when" or "because" (as in example 3 below). In the examples below, the subjects are underlined and the verbs are in bold. A Sentence Fragment is a sentence made of anything less than an independent clause. To fix it, we add an independent clause. Examples Fragment: Such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering. Corrected: There are many STEM careers, such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering. Fragment: Saving her team at a time when they needed her. Corrected: The goalie was saving her team at a time when they needed her. Fragment: Because the one I have now isn't working out too well. Corrected: I need a new roommate, because the one I have now isn't working out too well. A Run-on Sentence is made of multiple independent clauses joined by only a comma or no punctuation at all. It can be fixed with a comma and conjunction (example 1 below), a joining word like and or because (example 2 below), or a semicolon (example 3 below). Examples Run-on sentence: My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus it is very garlicky. Corrected: My favorite Mediterranean spread is hummus, as it is very garlicky. Run-on sentence: I rushed out to the shop, I had no milk left. Corrected: I rushed out to the shop because I had no milk left. Run-on sentence: Mary likes dogs she has a beagle. Corrected: Mary likes dogs; she has a beagle. Parallel Construction Parallel construction is when we present a list of things all in the same way. For example, if two things in a list are adverbs, the third should also be an adverb. If two things in a list are "to [verb]," then the other should also be in the form "to [verb]." To fix it, we just phrase all of the items in the list the same way. Examples Error: The couple bought the concert tickets, arrived at the theater, and went about finding their seats. Corrected: The couple bought the concert tickets, arrived at the theater, and found their seats. Error: The deer moved carefully, quietly and in a way that was slow. Corrected: The deer moved carefully, quietly and slowly. Error: Peeling hazelnuts requires skill, patience, and the ability to persevere. Corrected: Peeling hazelnuts requires skill, patience, and perseverance. Faulty Modifiers A modifier is a word or phrase that describes (a.k.a. modifies) something. There are two kinds of modifier problems tested on the ACT: dangling modifiers and misplaced modifiers. Dangling Modifier A dangling modifier is a modifier that begins a sentence, has a comma after it, and has the noun it describes NOT placed after the comma. In the first example below, for example, the modifier is "coating the sidewalk," and it describes the snow. Since "we" is the first word after the comma, not "snow," "coating the sidewalk" is a dangling modifier. Modifiers are underlined, while nouns being modified are in bold. Examples Error: Coating the sidewalk, we trudged through the heavy snow. Corrected: We trudged through the heavy snow coating the sidewalk. Error: Long and tangled, it was difficult to comb the child's hair. Corrected: Long and tangled, the child's hair was difficult to comb. Error: Exhausted and weak, the soldiers' uniforms were covered in frost. Corrected: Exhausted and weak, the soldiers were covered in frost. Misplaced Modifier A misplaced modifier is a modifier that's not close enough to the thing it describes, so it looks like it's describing the wrong thing. In the first example below, for example, the modifier "on the sale rack" seems to be describing how the jacket fits the rack, which isn't right. To correct it, we move the modifier closer to the noun it describes. Examples Error: The jacket was too small on the sale rack. Corrected: The jacket on the sale rack was too small. Error: Ray wore his one collared shirt to the job interview, which was stained with mustard. Corrected: Ray wore his one collared shirt, which was stained with mustard, to the job interview. Error: She handed out brownies to children wrapped in foil. Corrected: She handed out brownies wrapped in foil to children. Bonus: Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically. RHETORICAL SKILLS We're now going to cover the Rhetorical skills you need for ACT English. Where Usage skills tend to focus on smaller subparts of a sentence, Rhetorical skills broaden the scope to consider how sentences are constructed, and how sentences fit together with each other. Relevance This skill is deciding what the passage is about and whether a certain detail belongs in that category or not. Which sentences, if any, are irrelevant in the paragraph below? [1] My uncle explained to me that bonsai cultivation was part of our ancestors’ culture that could remain with me for my whole life. [2] He said that bonsai as old as Hoshi didn’t need much maintenance, but he would teach me what I needed to know. [3] He added that I could easily do everything necessary for Hoshi's care in my dorm room. [4] It’s funny to think that Hoshi is older than my great grandparents. Bonsai are grown from parts of normal-sized trees that are kept small by pruning and planting in small pots. [5] They thrive in only partial sunlight but need to be pruned several times per year and kept in temperatures that stay well above freezing year-round. [6] Bonsai also require careful watering, and Hoshi in particular needs to live outside in the summer to get the best light and inside in the winter because of the cold. If you said Sentence 4 is irrelevant, you're correct. The paragraph is all about bonsai cultivation, and Sentence 4 is about the age of bonsai trees. Author Intent For this skill, we need to be able to identify the writer's topic, point, or goal, and the ways she achieves it. What is the writer's point, t in the above paragraph? The correct answer is something along the lines of "the idea of Ra shows that people personify objects they depend on." Organization: Transitional Logic The ACT wants to test our ability to transition between ideas within a sentence, a paragraph, or a whole essay. Examples Error: All through high school, we were inseparable; however, even our parents eventually became friends. Corrected: All through high school, we were inseparable; in fact, even our parents eventually became friends. Error: The painting is a fascinating work because, by representing women in such a novel way, it questions both representational art and traditional notions of femininity. Nonetheless, most critics agree that it is a groundbreaking work in the development of both cubism and modern art as a whole. Corrected: The painting is a fascinating work because, by representing women in such a novel way, it questions both representational art and traditional notions of femininity. Indeed, most critics agree that it is a groundbreaking work in the development of both cubism and modern art as a whole. Organization: Macro Logic Macro-logic is the skill of putting the parts of an essay in the right order. Fortunately, on the ACT, there are tons of clues as to what order sentences and paragraphs should go in. Can you spot the out-of-place sentence(s) in the passage below? [1] He wore a sailor’s uniform and used papers given to him by a free black sailor, showed his ingenuity and courage. [2] After a number of previous failed attempts, Douglass finally escaped to freedom. [3] He took two boats and two trains to get from Havre de Grace, Maryland to a safehouse in New York City, completing his journey to freedom in less than twenty four hours. [4] He received the uniform from Anna Murray, a free black woman in Baltimore who later became his wife. If you said Sentence 4 is out of place, you were right. It should go after Sentence 1. Extra Advice: Want to get into the best college you can? Read our famous guide on how to get into Harvard, the Ivy League, and your top choice college. In this guide, you'll learn: What colleges are looking for in your application How to impress your top choice colleges Why you're probably wasting your time on activities that don't matter Even if you're not actually interested in Ivy League schools, you'll still learn something fundamental about how to apply to college. Read our top college admissions guide today. Conciseness and Redundancy There are times when saying something twice is needed: for emphasis, to review a difficult topic, or to explain something more clearly. None of these apply on the ACT. The two ways this skill is tested on the ACT is through wordy sentences and redundant sentences. They're related, but different. Wordy Sentences Examples Error: To travel around Berlin, we have the option of choosing many different transport systems; among them are the U-Bahn, or the underground rail system similar to New York’s Subway, and the tram, which is another form of transport that involves railways that have tracks on the streets. Corrected: To travel around Berlin, we might take the U-Bahn, or subway; we could also take the tram. Error: High-quality learning environments are a necessary precondition for facilitation and enhancement of the ongoing learning process. Corrected: Good schools enable people to learn more. Error: With reference to the fact that the company is deficient in manufacturing and production space, the contract may in all probability be awarded to some other enterprise. Corrected: The company may not be awarded the contract because it lacks production facilities. Redundant Sentences Examples Error: Many uneducated citizens who have never attended school continue to vote for better schools. Corrected: Many uneducated citizens continue to vote for better schools. Error: The eye of a storm is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of a tropical cyclone. Corrected: The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of a tropical cyclone. Error: The teenage woman who wanted to audition was talented, but only sixteen years old. Corrected: The woman who wanted to audition was talented, but only sixteen years old. Formality and Tone Every piece of writing has a level of formality, from none (a note passed in class) to maximum (official government or legal documents). The skill here is understanding the formality of the text (which is always pretty close to a book you'd read in English class). What's the informal phrase in the passage below? Examples Many cultures in recorded history have venerated and even worshipped the Sun. To some civilizations, the Sun represents all life; to others, the reason for the cycles of day and night. To Plato, the Sun represented the offspring of all that was good. In other myths, though, the Sun might have another kind of significance. It's for sure that the Sun carries great significance for many cultures both ancient and modern. If you said "it's for sure," you got it! It's less formal than the rest of the passage, which sounds quite academic. That's It! That's every rule tested on the ACT, as well as the ways in which they are likely to appear. Knowing these rules will make it easier to move forward confidently in your ACT practice. But this is just the beginning. Keep reading to find our most recommended links to master ACT English. What's Next? Knowing the grammar rules is just the beginning. Now, you need to practice them over and over again until you perfect your knowledge of them. Want an 36 on ACT English? Read our detailed guide on how to get a perfect English score. Be sure to also check our ultimate guide to ACT English, with links to all of our articles on ACT English tips and strategies. Better yet, read our guide on how to score a perfect ACT 36 score. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by ACT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Impact of Employee Participation on Job Satisfaction Dissertation

Impact of Employee Participation on Job Satisfaction - Dissertation Example One of the major challenges which the management of most of the organizations are facing is to develop and implement effective human resource strategies. Developing effective human resource strategies are required because they enhance the overall performance of organizations. Job satisfaction, employees participation, team empowerment are some important components of human resource strategy. Since most of the organizations are facing structural weaknesses and internal challenges, therefore, learning the determinants of job satisfaction has become very important for management. It is generally argued that employees’ participation in the organization, enhance their motivation level thereby, increasing the job satisfaction of people. The aim of this report is to evaluate whether there is a link between employees participation and job satisfaction or not and how participation may increase job satisfaction. This report is very important to understand the factors which may help the organization to increase job satisfaction to the workers. In addition to the impact of employees’ participation on job satisfaction, this report will also determine the role of the level of motivation and organizational trust of employees. Therefore, this report will be really worthwhile for the companies to learn the importance of employees’ participation at a workplace.  To achieve high individual and organization performance, companies are seeking to devise various strategies and employees’ participation in decision making is one of them. Huge literature work has been done to study the impact of employees’ participation on job satisfaction.